BioInfo (UK)

ECHINODERMATA Bruguière, 1791 [ex Klein, 1734] (starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers)

BioImages BioImages ( has 117 images of ECHINODERMATA (starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers)

NBN NBN ( has the UK distribution map of ECHINODERMATA (starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumbers)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Phylum)

Taxon Rank #refs #webs
ASTEROZOA (a subphylum of echinoderms) Subphylum    
ASTEROIDEA de Blainville, 1830 (starfish) Class    
VALVATIDA Perrier, 1884 (an order of echinoderms) Order    
ASTERINIDAE Gray, 1840 (cushion stars) Family    
Asterina gibbosa (Pennant, 1777) (Cushion Star) Species 1  
Asterina phylactica Emson & Crump, 1979 (Green Starlet) Species 1  
CRINOZOA (a subphylum of echinoderms) Subphylum    
CRINOIDEA (feather stars) Class    
COMATULIDA (an order of echinoderms) Order    
ANTEDONIDAE Norman, 1865 (a family of echinoderms) Family    
Antedon bifida (Pennant, 1777) (Feather Star, Rosy Feather-star) Species   1
ECHINOZOA (a subphylum of echinoderms) Subphylum    
ECHINOIDEA Leske, 1778 (sea urchins) Class    
CAMARODONTA Jackson, 1912 (an order of echinoderms) Order    
ECHINIDAE Gray, 1825 (a family of sea urchins) Family    
Echinus esculentus Linnaeus, 1758 (Common Sea-urchin, Edible Sea Urchin) Species   1
PARECHINIDAE Mortensen, 1903b (a family of echinoderms) Family    
Psammechinus miliaris (P.L.S. Müller, 1771) (a sea urchin) Species   1
SPATANGOIDA L. Agassiz, 1840a (an order of echinoderms) Order    
SPATANGIDAE Gray, 1825 (heart urchins and sea potatoes) Family    
Spatangus purpureus O.F. Müller, 1776 (Purple Heart Urchin) Species   1

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

The Marine Life Information Network for Britain and Ireland (MarLIN): The Marine Life Information Network for Britain and Ireland (MarLIN)
Echinodermata: Echinodermata
Fish, J.D. & Fish, S., 2011 A Student's Guide to the Seashore
Forbes, E., 1841 A History of British Starfishes, and other Animals of the class Echinodermata
Gibson, R., Hextall, B. & Rogers, A., 2001 Photographic Guide to the Sea & Shore Life of Britain & North-west Europe
British Marine Life Pictures: British Marine Life Pictures
Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (eds), 1996 Handbook of the Marine Fauna of North-West Europe
Koehler, P., 1921 Echinodermes
Mortensen, T., 1927 Handbook of the Echinoderms of the British Isles
Mugga: Mugga
Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland
Picton, B.E., 1993 (Shallow-water forms) A Field Guide to the Shallow-Water Echinoderms of the British Isles
Southward, E.C. & Campbell, A.C., 2005 Echinoderms


Newell, G.E. & Newell, R.C., 1973 Marine Plankton - a practical guide


Hayward, P.J. & Ryland, J.S. (eds), 1990 The Marine Fauna of the British Isles and north-west Europe

Planktonic stages

Todd, C.D., Laverack, M.S. & Boxshall, G., 1996 Coastal Marine Zooplankton: A Practical Manual for Students

General Works

Clark, A.M., 1968 Starfishes and their relations


Russell, H.D., 1963 Notes on methods for the narcotization, killing, fixation, and preservation of marine organisms


Journal of Plankton Research (J. Plankton Res.) Journal

Lab techniques

Costello, D. & Henley, C., 1971 Methods for obtaining and handling marine eggs and embryos

ECHINODERMATA may also be covered by literature listed under:

(living things)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

Associated with ECHINODERMATA:

Echinodermata may be associated with taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

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