BioInfo (UK)

LEPIDOPTERA (butterflies and moths)

BioImages BioImages (www.bioimages.org.uk) has 6568 images of LEPIDOPTERA (butterflies and moths)

NBN NBN (data.nbn.org.uk) has the UK distribution map of LEPIDOPTERA (butterflies and moths)

Subtaxa (ie subgroups of this Order)

Taxon Rank #subtaxa #refs #webs
DACNONYMPHA (a suborder of micro-moths) Suborder 1 subtaxon    
ERIOCRANIOIDEA (a superfamily of micro-moths) Superfamily 1 subtaxon    
ERIOCRANIIDAE (a family of micro-moths) Family   5  
EPERMENIOIDEA (a superfamily of moths) Superfamily 1 subtaxon    
EPERMENIIDAE (lance-wing micro-moths, fringe-tufted moths) Family   3  
EXOPORIA (swift moths) Suborder 1 subtaxon    
HEPIALOIDEA (swift moths) Superfamily 1 subtaxon 1 2
HETERONEURA (a suborder of moths and butterflies) Suborder 536 subtaxa 456 1129
ZEUGLOPTERA (jawed micro-moths) Suborder 1 subtaxon    
MICROPTERIGOIDEA (jawed micro-moths) Superfamily   1  
(Leaf-miner moths) (moths with leaf-mining larvae) Informal 89 subtaxa 60 185
(Microlepidoptera) (micro-moths) Informal 624 subtaxa 485 1258

Suggested Literature

Identification Works

Insects & Spiders from Finland
: http://www.kolumbus.fi/hannu.j.tanner/coleoptera/
Insects & Spiders from Finland
Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa: http://www.leps.it/ Moths and Butterflies of Europe and North Africa
What's Flying tonight?: http://www.suffolkmoths.org.uk/cgi-bin/flyingTonight.cgi What's Flying tonight?
Northumberland Moths: id tips: http://www.northumberlandmoths.org.uk/idtips.php Northumberland Moths: id tips
Davis, B.N.K., 1991 Insects on Nettles
Emmet, A.M., Langmaid, J. & Heath J., 1983 Micropterigidae to Heliozelidae (vol 1)
Svenska fjärilar: http://www2.nrm.se/en/svenska_fjarilar/svenska_fjarilar.html Svenska fjärilar
UK Lepidoptera: http://jeffhiggott.topcities.com/lepidoptera/lepidoptera.html UK Lepidoptera
UK Moths: http://ukmoths.org.uk UK Moths
British Lepidoptera: http://britishlepidoptera.weebly.com/ British Lepidoptera
Meyrick, E., 1927 A Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera
Nippe, B, 2000 Atlas der Raupen europäischer und kleinasiatischer Schmetterlinge
Lepidoptera and some other life forms: http://www.funet.fi/pub/sci/bio/life/intro.html Lepidoptera and some other life forms
South, R., 1961 The Moths of the British Isles
Moths and butterflies of Sweden: http://www.lepidoptera.se/en Moths and butterflies of Sweden
Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut): http://users.skynet.be/jjw.myco.mons Cercle de Mycologie de Mons (Belgique): (Page perso de JJ. Wuilbaut)

Caterpillars

Illustrated Guide to British Caterpillars: http://www.wildlifeinsight.com/guide-to-british-caterpillars/ Illustrated Guide to British Caterpillars
Buckler, W., 1899 The larvae of the British butterflies and moths
Eggs, Larvae and Pupae of Butterflies and Moths: http://www.ukleps.org Eggs, Larvae and Pupae of Butterflies and Moths
Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera: http://www.kolumbus.fi/silvonen/lnel/species.htm Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera

Conifer feeders

Clifton, J. & Wheeler, J., 2012 Conifer Moths of the British Isles: a Field Guide to Coniferous-feeding Lepidoptera

Flying tonight

Fliyng tonight?: http://www.norfolkmoths.co.uk/micros.php?flightarrivals=yes&showthumbs=yes&listmonth Fliyng tonight?
What's flying tonight?: http://www.suffolkmoths.org.uk/flyingTonight.html What's flying tonight?

Host plants

Kirk, W.D.J., 1992 Insects on Cabbages and Oilseed Rape

Microscopy

The Dissection Group: http://www.dissectiongroup.co.uk The Dissection Group

on cherry trees

Leather, S.R. & Bland, K.P., 1999 Insects on cherry trees

on docks

Salt, D.T. & Whittaker, J.B., 1998 Insects on dock plants

on thistles

Redfern, M., 1995 Insects and Thistles

Plant galls

Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2002 British Plant Galls - Identification of galls on plants and fungi
Redfern, M. & Shirley, P., 2011 British Plant Galls
Stubbs, F.B. (Editor), 1986 Provisional Keys to British Plant Galls

Pupae

Patocka, J. & Turcani, M., 2005 Lepidoptera Pupae: Central European Species

Stored product pests

Mound, L. (ed), 1989 Common Insects of Stored Products: a guide to their identification.

General Works

Breeding UK Leps discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/breeding_UK-Leps/join Breeding UK Leps discussion group
Moths Ireland: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/MothsIreland/join Moths Ireland
UK Leps discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/uk-leps/join UK Leps discussion group
UK Moths discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ukmoths/join UK Moths discussion group
Friedrich, E. (translated by S. Whitbread), 1986 (The classic work on rearing Butterflies and Moths) Breeding Butterflies and Moths - a handbook for British and European species.
Caterpillar: external structures: http://www.ukleps.org/Webpics/Wp4.jpg (Labelled photograph of caterpillar) Caterpillar: external structures
Mappes, J., Kokko, H., Ojala, K. & Lindstrom, L., 2014 Seasonal changes in predator community switch the direction of selection for prey defences
May, P. & White, M., 2006 Preparing and maintaining a collection of Butterflies and Moths
Sokoloff, P., 1980 Practical Hints for Collecting and Studying the Microlepidotera

Dead wood

Alexander, K.N.A., 2002 The Invertebrates of Living and Decaying Timber in Britain and Ireland - a Provisional Annotated Checklist

Food plants

Winter, T.G., 1974 New host records of Lepidoptera associated with afforestation in Britain

Microscopy

Moth Dissection Guide: http://www.angleps.com/Dissection%20Guide.pdf Moth Dissection Guide
Cribb, P.W., 1972 An Amateur's Guide to the Study of the Genitalia of Lepidoptera

Migrants

Migrant Recorders Network discussion group: http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/migrantrecordersnetwork/join Migrant Recorders Network discussion group

Parasitology

Hammond, H.E. & Smith, K.G.V., 1953 On some parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera bred from lepidopterous hosts. Part 1: with a description of Frontina laeta Mg., (Dipt: Larvaevoridae)
Hammond, H.E. & Smith, K.G.V., 1955 On some parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera bred from lepidopterous hosts. Part 2: misc. records of Phoridae, Larvaevoridae (Dipt.), Braconidae, Ichneumonidae and Eulophidae (Hym.)
Hammond, H.E. & Smith, K.G.V., 1957 On some parasitic Diptera and Hymenoptera bred from lepidopterous hosts. Part 3: records of Tachinidae (Dipt.), Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Eulophidae and Scelionidae (Hym.)

Suppliers

Polybags Ltd: http://www.polybags.co.uk Polybags Ltd

LEPIDOPTERA may also be covered by literature listed under:

BIOTA
(living things)
Eukaryota
(eukaryotes)
ANIMALIA
(animals)
EUMETAZOA
(metazoans)
ARTHROPODA
(arthropods)
HEXAPODA
(insects and other 6-legged organisms)
INSECTA
(true insects)
PTERYGOTA
(bees, beetles, dragonflies, flies, grasshoppers, moths and other winged insects)
Invertebrates (via Arthropoda)

Feeding and other inter-species relationships

LEPIDOPTERA is associated with:

adult Anacamptis pyramidalis - Pyramidal Orchid (Asparagales: Orchidaceae) adult pollinates or fertilises flower Harrap, A. & S., 2009

There may be more taxa associated with Lepidoptera listed at higher taxonomic level

INSECTA
(true insects)

Associated with LEPIDOPTERA:

is endoparasitised by larva Pollenia - cluster flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) van Emden, F.I.,, 1954
is endoparasitised by larva Sarcophaga albiceps - a flesh fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) van Emden, F.I.,, 1954
is endoparasitised by larva Sarcophaga jacobsoni - a flesh fly (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) van Emden, F.I.,, 1954
is parasitised by Akanthomyces anamorph Akanthomyces aculeatus - an anamorphic fungus (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
adult (live) live adult may be infected by Conidiobolus thromboides - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982
adult (live) live adult may be infected by Entomophthora aulicae - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982
adult adult is predated by adult Troilus luridus - Bronze Shieldbug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
adult adult is predated by leaf Pinguicula vulgaris - Common Butterwort (Lamiales: Lentibulariaceae) Darwin, C., 1875 [small spp. (page 370)]
caterpillar caterpillar may be infected by Bacillus thuringiensis - BT Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 [sold as a bacterial insecticide against caterpillars, especially leaf-eating spp on Brassica.]
caterpillar caterpillar is predated by Himacerus (Himacerus) apterus - Tree Damsel Bug (Hemiptera: Nabidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
caterpillar caterpillar is predated by Nabis (Nabis) ferus - Field Damsel Bug (Hemiptera: Nabidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
caterpillar caterpillar is predated by solitary nymph (3rd instar onwards) Picromerus bidens - Spined Shieldbug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Major Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
caterpillar caterpillar is predated by adult Picromerus bidens - Spined Shieldbug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Major Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
caterpillar caterpillar is predated by nymph Troilus luridus - Bronze Shieldbug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) UK/Ireland Hawkins, R.D., 1985 [some larvae]
caterpillar caterpillar is predated by adult Troilus luridus - Bronze Shieldbug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
caterpillar caterpillar is predated by adult Pentatoma rufipes - Forest Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
egg egg is endoparasitoid host of solitary larva Trichogramma brassicae - a chalcid wasp (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Restricted
egg egg is predated by adult Orthotylus (Orthotylus) tenellus - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
egg egg is predated by nymph Orthotylus (Orthotylus) tenellus - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
frass, caterpillar frass of caterpillar dung may support colony of Clonostachys anamorph Clonostachys simmonsii - an anamorphic fungus (Hypocreales: Bionectriaceae) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
imago imago is parasitoid host of gregarious stroma Cordyceps tuberculata - an ascomycete (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Dennis, R.W.G., 1978
larva (buried (usually)) buried (usually) larva is parasitoid host of solitary (usually) stroma Cordyceps militaris - Scarlet Caterpillarclub (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Dennis, R.W.G., 1978
larva (buried) buried larva is parasitoid host of solitary (usually) stroma Cordyceps gracilis - an ascomycete (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) UK/Ireland Dennis, R.W.G., 1978,
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995
larva (live) live larva may be infected by Erynia radicans - an entomophagous fungus (Entomophthorales: Entomophthoraceae) Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982
larva (young) larva (young) is predated by adult Orthotylus (Orthotylus) tenellus - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
larva (young) larva (young) is predated by nymph Orthotylus (Orthotylus) tenellus - a plantbug or grassbug (Hemiptera: Miridae) UK/Ireland Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959
larva larva is endoparasitoid host of larva Blondelia nigripes - a parasitoid fly (Diptera: Tachinidae) Foreign Major Belshaw, R., 1993
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Bethylus cephalotes - a bethylid wasp (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Ammophila pubescens - Heath Sand Wasp (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Podalonia affinis - Mud Wasp (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Podalonia hirsuta - Hairy Sand Wasp (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Ancistrocerus gazella - a potter wasp or mason wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Ancistrocerus trifasciatus - a potter wasp or mason wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Microdynerus exilis - a potter wasp or mason wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Odynerus (Odynerus) spinipes - Spiny Mason Wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
larva larva is taken to the nest of female Symmorphus bifasciatus - a potter wasp or mason wasp (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) UK/Ireland Macdonald, M.A., in prep.
leaf-spinnings leaf-spinnings may attract colony Chaitophorus tremulae - a hairy aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Stroyan, H.L.G., 1977
pupa (buried (usually)) buried (usually) pupa is parasitoid host of solitary (usually) stroma Cordyceps militaris - Scarlet Caterpillarclub (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Dennis, R.W.G., 1978
pupa pupa is parasitoid host of gregarious stroma Cordyceps tuberculata - an ascomycete (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) Dennis, R.W.G., 1978

Lepidoptera may be associated with more taxa listed at higher taxonomic level

ANIMALIA
(animals)
ARTHROPODA
(arthropods)
INSECTA
(true insects)
Invertebrates (via Arthropoda)

Further Information

Lab. techniques Cremaster: Once the moth has emerged, the exuvium is available for examination and the cremaster is generally still intact. The more intricate cremasters are often strongly entangled in silk which is difficult to remove to examine the structure. A few minutes soaking in dilute KOH dissolves the silk. Unlike teasing it away with a needle, this does no damage but obviously cannot be applied to living pupae.

References

Belshaw, R., 1993 Tachinid Flies (Diptera: Tachinidae)
Buczacki, S. & Harris, K., 1998 Pests, Diseases & Disorders of Garden Plants
Darwin, C., 1875 Insectivorous Plants
Dennis, R.W.G., 1978 British Ascomycetes
Dennis, R.W.G., 1995 Fungi of the South East England
Harrap, A. & S., 2009 Orchids of Britain & Ireland: a field and site guide
Hawkins, R.D., 1985 Some foods of Heteroptera larvae in the wild
Macdonald, M.A., in prep. Forage, prey and host-parasite relationships of aculeates
Southwood, T.R.E. & Leston, D., 1959 Land and Water Bugs of the British Isles
Stroyan, H.L.G., 1977 Homoptera - Aphidoidea (Part): Chaitophoridae & Callaphididae
van Emden, F.I.,, 1954 Diptera: Cyclorrhapha Calyptrata (I) Sect (a) Tachinidae and Calliphoridae
Waterhouse, G.M. & Brady, B.L., 1982 Key to the Species of Entomophthora sensu lato
Creative Commons Licence
Unless otherwise expressly stated, all original material on the BioInfo website by Malcolm Storey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 UK: England & Wales Licence.